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Glossary Of Terms

Yayasan Senyum Bali

The Smile Foundation of Bali (Yayasan Senyum Bali) is a non profit organisation in Bali that helps people with craniofacial disabilities obtain health care. Senyum means smile and yayasan means foundation or institut in Indonsian.

The Smile Foundation facilitates operations for cleft lip and palate and other craniofacial deformities, due to birth defects, accidents or tumors. The organisation helps poor people from Bali, Lombok and further east, and raises funds for operations whether in Bali or Adelaide, Australia at the Australian Craniofacial Unit.

The Smile Foundation of Bali was founded in 2005 by Mary Northmore-Aziz at the suggestion of Dr. David David from the Australian Craniofacial Unit, to identify those in need of craniofacial surgery. Dr. David David has continued his association as the chief adviser to the foundation. In December 2006 the foundation opened the "Smile Shop", which was the first Op shop in Bali. It provides a source of income for the foundation through the sale of secondhand goods and old stock from local businesses. After extensive fundraising, the "Smile House" was opened in January 2007, in Denpasar. The Smile House provides accommodation and educational facilities, in particular for those from outlying areas.

Goldenhar Syndrome

Goldenhar Syndrome is a rare congenital defect characterized by incomplete development of the ear, nose, soft palate, and mandible. It is associated with anomalous development of the first branchial arch and second branchial arch. Chief markers of Goldenhar syndrome are incomplete development of the ear, nose, soft palate, lip, and mandible on usually one side of the body. Additionally, some patients will have growing issues with internal organs, especially heart, kidneys, and lungs. Typically, the organ will either not be present on one side or will be underdeveloped.

Other problems can include severe scoliosis (twisting of the vertebrae), limbal dermoids, and hearing loss, deafness/blindness in one or both ears/eyes. Intellect is usually normal. The majority of abnormalities will be amenable to surgical correction.

Apert Syndrome

Apert Syndrome is a form of acrocephalosyndactyly, a congenital disorder characterized by malformations of the skull, face, hands and feet. It is classified as a branchial arch syndrome, affecting the first branchial (or pharyngeal ) arch, the precursor of the maxilla and mandible. Disturbances in the development of the branchial arches in fetal development create lasting and widespread effects. The cranial malformations are the most apparent effects of acrocephalosyndactyly. Cranialsynostosis occurs, with brachiocephaly being the common pattern of growth. Another common characteristic is a high, prominent forehead with a flat posterior skull. Due to the premature closing of the coronal sutures, increased cranial pressure can develop, leading to mental deficiency. A flat or concave face may develop as a result of deficient growth in the mid-facial bones, leading to a conditir prognathism. Other features of acrocephalosyndactyly may include shallow bony orbits and broadly spaced eyes. Low-set ears are also a typical characteristic of branchial arch syndromes.

Craniofacial anomalies

Craniofacial anomalies (CFA) are a group of deformities in the growth of the skull and facial bones. These abnormalities are congenital (present at birth) and there are numerous variations. While some are mild, many may require reconstructive surgery. Examples of common craniofacial anomalies include cleft lip/cleft palate, craniosynostosis, deformational plagiocephaly, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformations and hemangiomas. There seems to be no single factor that causes these types of abnormalities and many of the exact causes are still unknown. Some cases are associated with known genetic or inherited defects.

Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat (RSUP) Sanglah Denpasar

Sanglah General Hospital (RSUP Sanglah Denpasar) was founded in 1956 and inaugurated on 30 December 1959 by the first president of Indonesia, Ir. Soekarno. In 1962 RSUP Sanglah established cooperation with the Medical School of Udayana University as a practice centre for their medical students.

Nowadays, along with its rapid developments RSUP Sanglah has become the largest referral hospital for Bali, South West Nusa and South East Nusa. This hospital that located on the Diponegoro street has two experts in plastic surgery where most of the Yayasan Senyum Bali patients' operations are led by them.

Australian Cranio-Facial Unit

The Australian Craniofacial Unit treats people with a wide range of craniofacial disorders such as distortion of the skull and facial shape, cleft lip and palate deformities through to deep facial clefts, facial growth anomalies, tumours which require removal followed by reconstructive work, trauma cases that require reconstruction. The Unit was established in 1975 by Craniofacial Surgeon Professor David David to provide a service for South Australian, interstate and overseas patients. In September 1988 the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council officially designated the Unit a National Centre of Excellence. The Unit is closely aligned with the Australian Craniofacial Institute.

Mary Northmore

Mary Northmore was born in a country town in England. From a young age she really wanted to travel and see the world and decided to teach English abroad. She taught in Italy, Greece, and Hong Kong. She first came to Bali as a result of a friend insisting that she would really enjoy the art of Ubud. She was married to Abdul Aziz, one of the Indonesian great artists, in the end of 1988.

In 2005 she found the Yayasan Senyum Bali (the Smile Foundation of Bali) at the suggestion of Dr. David David from the Australian Craniofacial Unit, to identify those in need of craniofacial surgery. Dr. David David has continued his association as the chief adviser to the foundation. She is also the founder of Seniwati Gallery in Ubud, a gallery that exposes the world to the long understated brilliance of Balinese women artists, encourage Balinese girls' creativity, assist talented women to market their art.

Professor David J. David AC

Professor David J. David AC is a specialist in the area of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Head and Neck. He has and will continue to treat patients from all over the world. Professor David is Head of the Australian Craniofacial Unit and President of The Australian Craniomaxillofacial Foundation.

International Society for Craniofacial Surgery

Founded in 1983, the International Society for Craniofacial Surgery provides a forum for surgeons to exchange information and technology, fostering a worldwide community of leading experts in this highly specialized field of medicine.

Adelaide Women and Children's Hospital

The Women's and Children's Hospital is one of the major hospitals in Adelaide and is a teaching hospital of the University of Adelaide, the University of South Australia and Flinders University. It was created through the amalgamation of the Queen Victoria Hospital and Adelaide Children's Hospital in March 1989. The new (in name) hospital occupies the site of the former Adelaide Children's Hospital. The hospital is part of the Children, Youth and Women's Health Service along with the Child and Youth Health (CYH). The Children's and Adolescent's wards cater for all paediatric specialites. The Women's wards cater for antenatal, gynaecology, neonatal and postnatal disciplines. The Women's & Children's Hospital Foundation is the primary charity for the Hospital and exists to raise money and invest initiatives that support the care and future health of South Australia's women, babies and children.

Orthodontic Care

Orthodontics is the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. This specialty field of dentistry offers correction for people with an irregular or "bad" bite, also known as a malocclusion.

Orthodontic care involves the use of corrective appliances, usually braces. These corrective appliances can be used to straighten teeth, correct bite irregularities, close unsightly gaps, bring teeth and lips into proper alignment.

They can also be used to help with procedures in other areas of dentistry, such as cosmetic dentistry or implant dentistry.

In young children, orthodontic treatment also may guide proper jaw growth and permanent tooth eruption.

Australian Indonesian Association in Adelaide

The Australia Indonesia Association (AIA) unites people with a social and cultural interest in Indonesia. The association provides an opportunity to attend Sydney based Indonesian events, socialize with people who have a common interest in Indonesia and learn about Indonesian culture. It was established to encourage art, culture and literature, to promote friendship and to promote understanding and good relations between Australians and Indonesians.

The AIA members have lived, worked, travelled or studied in Indonesia - or they plan to.

The Australia Indonesia Association was founded in 1945, making it one of the oldest and longest established organizations in the world with an interest in the newly independent country of Indonesia.

Australian Volunteers International (AVI)

Australian Volunteers International recruits skilled professionals from Australia to work with partner organisations in Asia, the Pacific, Africa and the Middle East. Its work focuses on reducing poverty, promoting human rights and gender equality, increasing access to education and health services, and protecting the environment. In the last 50 years AVI have placed more than 6000 volunteers and other field workers in 70 countries.


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